malformations (lymphatic and
venous birthmarks) are
low-flow malformations and contain
both abnormal lymphatic and venous
channels. In most patients, the
lymphatic portion of the
malformation (birthmark) appears
dominant on imaging studies. These
birthmarks may be scattered in one
extremity or may be a focal
malformation. This photo shows an
example for lymphatic venous
malformation in the forearm.
venous malformation in the
upper extremity. Photo#2
shows a small lymphatic venous
birthmarks in the foot.
lesions were noted at birth.
Diagnosis is made based on
clinical findings and imaging
(typically MRI). Experienced
radiologist can recognize these
abnormalities on MRI. These
birthmarks typically show low-flow
malformation features on MRI and
typical skin changes can be
observed (please see the photo).
Treatment is similar to venous
malformation and lymphatic
should be the primary treatment
modality based on imaging
characteristics of the